Electronics prototyping, Printed circuit boards and Integrated Circuits 

Breadboards are a common tool used for prototyping electronic circuits. They are made up of a grid of holes into which components such as resistors, capacitors, and transistors can be inserted. Jumper wires are used to connect the components together and create the desired circuit. 

Breadboards are a convenient tool for prototyping electronic circuits because they allow you to easily make changes to the circuit by simply moving components or jumper wires around on the breadboard. This makes it easy to experiment with different configurations and test different ideas without having to solder components together or make permanent connections. 

A printed circuit board (PCB) is a thin board made of a non-conductive material, such as fiberglass or plastic, with a pattern of copper traces etched onto one or both sides. The copper traces form the conductive pathways that connect the various electronic components of a circuit together.

PCBs are used as the foundation for many electronic devices and systems, including computers, smartphones, and other consumer electronics, as well as industrial and military equipment. They provide a reliable, compact, and cost-effective way to connect electronic components and build circuits.

PCBs are widely used in electronics because they offer several advantages over other types of circuit construction. They are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, they are durable and reliable, and they allow for high-density component packaging, which saves space and reduces the overall size of electronic devices. 

An integrated circuit, or microchip, is a small electronic device that is made up of a series of interconnected components, such as transistors and resistors, that are fabricated on a piece of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are used to perform a wide range of functions, including processing and transmitting information, amplifying signals, and controlling the operation of devices. They are an essential component of many electronic systems and are used in a wide range of applications, including computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics. In simple terms, an integrated circuit is a tiny computer that is used to perform various tasks in electronic devices. 

breadboard circuits: LED, Resistors, Series/parallel 

A breadboard is a type of prototyping tool used in electronics that allows you to easily create and test circuits without the need for soldering. It consists of a grid of holes that you can use to connect components such as LEDs, resistors, and other electronic components.

 An LED (light-emitting diode) is a type of semiconductor device that emits light when an electric current is passed through it. LEDs are often used in circuits as indicators or to provide illumination.

 Resistors are passive electronic components that are used to reduce the flow of current in a circuit. They are typically labeled with a value in ohms (Ω) that indicates the amount of resistance they provide.

In a breadboard circuit, you can connect components in series or in parallel.

 In a series circuit, the components are connected end-to-end, so that the current flows through each component in turn. This means that the current flowing through each component is the same, but the voltage across each component will be different.

 In a parallel circuit, the components are connected side-by-side, so that the current can flow through each component independently. This means that the voltage across each component is the same, but the current flowing through each component will be different.

 Breadboard circuits are a convenient way to build and test simple electronic circuits, and they are often used by students and hobbyists to learn about electronics and prototype ideas.

Simple Ics and controllers

Integrated circuits (ICs) are small electronic devices that are made up of a number of transistors, diodes, and other components that are integrated onto a single piece of semiconductor material (such as silicon). ICs are used to perform a wide variety of electronic functions, including amplification, signal processing, and data storage.

Controllers are devices that are used to control the operation of other devices or systems. They may use sensors to gather information about the system being controlled, and use this information to adjust the system's operation in order to achieve a desired outcome. For example, a thermostat is a controller that uses a temperature sensor to adjust the operation of a heating or cooling system in order to maintain a desired temperature in a building.

Simple ICs and controllers are electronic devices that are designed to perform simple tasks, such as switching a circuit on or off, or controlling the speed of a motor. They may be used in a variety of applications, such as controlling the operation of household appliances, automating industrial processes, or providing basic control functions in electronic systems.

Watch video on how to make LED blinking on breadboard using Capacitors and transistors

Motor controller

A motor controller is a device that is used to control the speed and operation of an electric motor. It can be used to start and stop the motor, as well as to adjust its speed and torque. Motor controllers can be used with a variety of different types of electric motors, including dc motors, ac motors, and stepper motors.

There are several different types of motor controllers available, including brushed and brushless dc motor controllers, ac motor controllers, and stepper motor controllers. The type of motor controller that is used depends on the type of motor and the specific application.

Motor controllers can be used in a wide range of applications, including industrial automation, electric vehicles, and household appliances. They can help to improve the efficiency and performance of the motor, as well as to provide precise control over its operation. Motor controllers can also be used to protect the motor from damage by providing overcurrent, overtemperature, and overvoltage protection.

What is PWM modulation and PWM controller

PWM (pulse width modulation) is a type of digital signal that is used to control the speed and torque of an electric motor. It works by rapidly switching the power to the motor on and off, using a series of electrical pulses with different pulse widths to control the average voltage applied to the motor. The wider the pulse width, the more power is delivered to the motor.

A PWM controller is a device that is used to generate PWM signals and control the speed and torque of an electric motor using PWM. It typically consists of a microcontroller or other digital processing unit that generates the PWM signal, as well as various inputs and outputs for controlling and monitoring the motor.

PWM controllers are often used in applications where precise control of the motor is required, such as in electric vehicles, robotics, and industrial automation. They are particularly useful for controlling brushless dc motors, which are sensitive to voltage changes and require precise control of the current to operate properly.

PWM controllers can be used in combination with sensors and relays to create automated systems that can respond to certain conditions or events. For example, a temperature sensor could be used to trigger a PWM controller that adjusts the speed of a fan to maintain a consistent temperature.

Additional Resources : 

To learn more about Breadboard and PCB click on the following link:

https://sites.google.com/view/breadboard-and-pcb/breadboard-and-pcb